Interim COUNTRY REPORTS

Bangladesh

Interim Country Report

M Sanjeeb Hossain / May 2022

Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) has been hosting the Rohingya people fleeing from persecution in their homeland Myanmar (formerly Burma) for decades. While records of the Rohingya crossing the River Naf to enter East Pakistan date back to the 1950s, the most recent and arguably, the most significant instance of the Rohingya fleeing in large numbers and taking refuge in Bangladesh took place in 2017. At the time of writing this Interim Report, over one million Rohingya live within and beyond 34 refugee camps in the south-eastern region of Bangladesh. In three parts, this Report explores three areas, namely, the status of the Rohingya, their vulnerabilities, and their right to work in Bangladesh. The following paragraphs of this Executive Summary identify key findings.


Brazil

Interim Country Report

Prof. Natália Medina Araújo & Patrícia Ramos Barros/ May 2022

In Brazil, the recognition of refugees occurs in accordance with Law 9474/97. This law implements the 1951 Refugee Statute, as well as an expanded definition based on the Declaration of Cartagena, which was recently applied to grant prima facie recognition to nationals of Venezuela.

The fieldwork demonstrates that actors dealing with refuge in Brazil consider the RSD process impartial and the main reason given is the plurality of actors encompassed in the tripartite composition of CONARE, as well as the presence of some invited members with voice, which would favor technical discussion and the exposure of multiple points of view and would reduce political biases in decision making.

Canada

Interim Country Report

Roberto Cortinovis; Andrew Fallone / January 2021

The Global Compact on Refugees (GCR) recognises complementary pathways for admission to third countries as an additional ‘solution’ to resettlement and as an expression of solidarity towards countries and communities hosting large numbers of refugees. The 2019 UNHCR ‘Three-Year Strategy on Resettlement and Complementary Pathways’ calls for a sustainable and predictable growth in complementary pathways, with the goal of expanding access to those channels up to two million people by the end of 2028, a target that is double the one million resettlement places aimed for during the same period.

Jordan

Interim Country Report

Lewis Turner / May 2022

Jordan is a key country in the international refugee system, hosting the second highest number of refugees per capita in the world. Jordan’s population of approximately 10 million includes more than 2 million registered Palestinian refugees, and over 750,000 registered persons of concern to UNHCR.

The vast majority of registered persons of concern to UNHCR are Syrians (at approximately 650,000), with a substantial Iraqi population, and notable populations of Sudanese and Yemeni protection seekers. In total, Jordan hosts registered people of concern to UNHCR of 57 nationalities, although those who are not Iraqi, Sudanese, Syrian or Yemeni make up around 0.3% of the total – approximately 2,200 people (UNHCR, 2020).

South Africa

Interim Country Report

Ms Nandi Rayner / May 2022

In or around 2005, Zimbabwe began to experience political and economic crisis, which led to many Zimbabwean migrants and asylum seekers entering South Africa for protection. It is estimated that around 1.5 million Zimbabweans are living in South Africa, the majority of whom were and are living irregularly. South Africa responded to the migration and asylum seekers from Zimbabwe with draconian immigration restrictions which forced people into irregular migration channels.

Turkey

Interim Country Report

İlke Şanlıer Yüksel/ May 2022

As a political tool, the Global Compact on Refugees (GCR) provides a framework for protection of persons in need of international protection and complementary pathways for UN member states, including the EU and Turkey. This framework includes instruments for responsibility-sharing such as resettlement and financial contributions. Through a multifactorial and relational approach, this report focuses on the ramifications of externalization policies of the EU and the instruments that facilitate keeping refugees in the Turkish asylum regime and instruments’ impacts on those who are in need of protection and how the EU defies GCR principles